• Soo Yon Ryu

Role of Makeup in Self-portrait Photography of Female Contemporary Artist.

Note: the article below was translated using Google Translator. There may be mistranslations. Tables and figures were omitted.




I. Introduction


The functional characteristics of the makeup have changed in response to the paradigm of society changing in history. The magical, instinctive and symbolic makeup in the ancient wild environment was transferred to the means of expressing personality as the civilization advanced. The development of the arts divided the density of makeup in stages, distinguishing between ordinary and special ones, of which the stage visually communicated a fictional character separated from everyday life. The makeup that manipulates the appearance of the object by being applied to the body suggests the organic connection between the appearance and the internal properties, which is adopted as a main tool in future self-portrait photography. In the early days of art history, self-portraits functioned as a tool for divine representation and personal signatures. From the Renaissance, the self-portrait developed into a medium of individual image expression. After the French Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, the self-portrait empirical heightened as the individual's personality was emphasized. At the end of the 19th century, the self-portrait developed to express the artist's self. Self-portraits in contemporary art play a unique role in presenting a discussion about the society that surrounds the artist's individual expression. The writer takes on the task of erasing himself from the self-portrait and creating a new identity in that the self-portrait is not a writer's self but a means of communicating other messages. In this process, make-up is essential, and the change in appearance enables the diversification of persona.


The need for dressing up in photographic portraits is even greater. Photography emerged as a medium of expression, and artists used it separately from their everyday functions of realistic reproduction. Using the reproducibility of photography as a tool, he attempts to capture the paradoxically non-representative self by making makeup or composition. In this context, the role of the artist in the photographic portraits was focused on the synthman who discussed feminism in modernism and the works of women and the body, and Nikki who explored the changing self-identity. Let's explore.


II. Makeup in Contemporary Art


1. Definition of Makeup


Art and makeup differ from the canvas of expression, but have been used since ancient civilizations for their fundamentally homogeneous desire for expression. From the magical expressions through which religious consciousness intervenes, the perception of visual perception and its physical representation, the channel of communication in response to the limitations of language expression, and the instinctual desire for decoration, art has a variety of valid effects from primitive to modern society. Inclusive of purpose. Paintings appeared in the form of murals in early civilizations, while makeup appeared in the form of painting dirt, ash, cuts or tattoos on the surface of the skin. The makeup was carried out with a more specific sense of purpose, which originated in the ritual of praying for warriors in the hunting ground. Sometimes it also played the role of applying the animal's fat to the skin to overcome the cold. As society was formed, the purpose of the dressing was diversified, serving as a symbolic role of status or status, or as a camouflage for protection in the wild. The protective and magical significance that was required in early civilization is fading in the development of society, and the makeup is mainly used as the intention of expressing personality in modern society.


Unlike the light 'cosmetics' used in everyday life, 'dressing' is usually used to express an expression separate from the background body, and is mainly adopted as a means of expression in stage art or body art. In other words, it can be seen as a tool to conceal the original form of an actor or artist, to understand disparate characters, and to acquire visual persuasion about them. Thus, makeup can be defined as including all physical manipulations that are mobilized to hide the original and create new characters, such as painting on the body, wearing a wig, and wearing a costume. According to Kim Nam-hee (2006), the types of makeup can be classified based on function, expression method, pigment / technique, production space, and personality. When categorized by the expression method, 'general makeup' is a light makeup for aesthetics corresponding to the area of ​​cremation, while 'personal makeup' is a makeup for expressing the personality of the cast outwardly. Used. In the measurement of pigments and techniques, the intensity of stage makeup is controlled according to the physical distance between actors and audiences, and the degree of 'flat dressing' and 'three-dimensional dressing' is adjusted. The production space is largely divided into 'stage make-up' and 'image make-up', and there are special make-ups using light general make-up and special materials such as latex.


The photographs are similar to the stage art in that they use a mise en scene as the subject. In the stage art, the makeup is expressed externally by connecting the characteristics of the character's occupation, status, age, and temperament, which are defined in the scenario, with the character's life. This implies the premise that the internal and environmental features of a person can appear outward and, conversely, the features of the person can be grasped from the outward.


2. The Development Process of Makeup Art


The historical starting point of the makeup is unclear, but it generally recognizes the magical act of primitive civilization as an early form. In primitive times, dressing was used for the elimination of devils, and the agricultural society developed, and the powerful figure symbolically represented more `` elimination of devils '' through dressing. It was also used as a means of protection from the sun or wildlife, and also as a human instinct for aesthetic expression. Both men and women expressed beauty by dressing their skin color, and at the same time, they began to paint their hair with pigments to emphasize facial expressions. As society advanced and entertainment developed, the makeup became a means of communication between actors and audiences. Since the late 1920s, dressing became active among women, and the art of expressing the contours of the neck was popular. In the 1940s, the culture of makeup was expanded from Europe to the United States. In the 1950s, visual media such as television, movies, and cameras appeared, and celebrities such as Marilyn Monroe appeared, which increased the sensitivity of artists and the general public. The 1980s was a time when the personalization and diversification of post-modernism was combined with the individual characteristics of makeup. At this time, makeup was used as a medium for body painting or performing arts as the genre was diversified and specialized. In the 20th century, which was dependent on the mass media, the makeup expanded its role as a means of communication. In particular, in contemporary art, makeup is borrowed as an expression language that crosses the category of gender, and Yoo Woo-jung (2011) also referred to the makeup as a 'performance of one expression' that the individual shows himself.


III. Self-Portrait Photography in Contemporary Art


Looking back at art history, portraits were the most political and most personal form of work. The portrait, which is the subject of the work itself, opened up the possibility of intentional intervention by choosing painting in the process of reproduction. Portraits were transformed and manipulated through the artist's painting techniques in the name of reproducing the appearance of the individual, and used as a means of image making. However, due to the medium's characteristic of portraits, the intention was inclined to the client's in the relationship between the client and the provider of a kind of art service. On the other hand, in the case of the self-portrait where the artist reproduces himself, not the outside subject, the limits of framing have been extended indefinitely and the aspect of representation has been liberated. Unlike self-portraits, self-portraits also served as an opportunity to expand the means of expression of artists by enabling various stories through the expression of characters beyond the representation of the individual.


1. Self-Portrait Photography Definition


Portraits of individuals, rather than religious images, began as a donor who appeared with the saints in the medieval "Torch." The donor showed a symbolism rather than a realistic representation, such as being expressed in the size of only 10% of adults. From the beginning of the 15th century, individual independent portraits and portraits of painters began to appear, and from the beginning of the 17th century painters used to be themselves models. In the book produced in the late Middle Ages, the self-portraits of the authors and authors can be found, and the self-portraits in the pure sense of the origin are recorded. These self-portraits served merely as substitutes for signatures rather than containing aesthetic meanings. In the middle of the fifteenth century, it was believed that the artists painted the priesthood as the origin of self-portrait. Self-portraits developed during the Baroque after the Renaissance of the 17th and 18th centuries, and during 19th century modern art. do. From the neoclassical self-portraits of Jacques Louis David, Gustave Courbet, and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, from Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and Paul Cezanne Self-portraits were included in the major works of artists who enjoyed the period. Later, experimental self-portraits were produced by Henri Matisse, Gustave Moreau, Andre Derain, Chaim Soutine, and Pablo Picasso. We also passed or tried various settings. At the end of the 19th century, writers such as James Ensor, Ernst Kirchner, and Beckmann attempted to express self-consciousness through self-portraits.In the early 20th century, Frida Kahlo and Andy Warhol (Andy Warhol) Cindy Sherman, Chuck Close, and others created their own self-portraits.


The self-portrait, which has passed through history and escaped from realistic expressions, enables the artist to express the inner and psychological states of the artist and the social atmosphere that it suggests, rather than the representation of the outside. Jin Jung-kwon (2003) said that with the emergence of photographs in 1839, the artist could not follow the realistic reproducibility of the photographs, and the artist progressed in a way that reveals the original nature rather than the reproduction of the appearance.


2. Makeup in Self-portrait Pictures


In this way, the medium of photography appeared, and objects that had been previously expressed as pigments on canvas began to be expressed with new mechanisms. The question of 'how to framing the object' remains the same as the existing painting, but the order of capture and expression in painting and photography is reversed. The process of manipulating printed photographs expanded the space to reveal the artist's creativity and individuality.


Therefore, the self-portrait photographs intervened by the artist's subject cannot be the subject of the artist's own work, but the external message revealed through the artist's appearance becomes the subject. That is, in order for the non-representative self-portrait picture to be established, the artist constructs a second person who expresses the message he wants to express, not the state of the artist. In the process of visually communicating a new persona, makeup is inevitable. The artist attempts to communicate by transforming the appearance communicated in photography through makeup, expressing a new person, not the artist himself, and reflecting the inner world of the person outward. In this way, self-portrait photography that encompasses the exploration of the unique inner world of the person who is presented visually, the development of external features that express it, makeup, and photography can be considered as a comprehensive art.


IV. Case Analysis of Makeup in Self-Portrait


1. Cindy Sherman and Dress Up


Cindy Sherman is an American female photographic artist whose main theme is "female" and "body" under the influence of the feminist wave of modern society. In Sherman's work, makeup was inseparable. Sherman performed her work through self-portrait techniques that used himself as a subject, and presented unique works that served as models and artists.


Sherman used photography as a medium, but did not use photography techniques or special effects, but simply used it as a record of the moment. The subject of the work, however, was not synthman himself, but a different character of various races, ages, backgrounds and experiences expressed through Sherman's body. Syndicated in 1982 issued the following announcement.


“This is a picture of the personification of feelings, not about me, but about the whole being. The identity of a model is not as important as any other symbol of detail. I consider what I work against when preparing each character. People will try to find common information under makeup and wigs. I want to make people recognize something about themselves, not me. I have tremendous fear that people are mistaken that these photos are about me, full of pride and narcissism. ”


The Untitled Film Still series, a representative example of Cindy Sherman's work, began in 1977, and features a cinematic atmosphere in the 1950s and a stereotyped female character in the 1960-1970s. I borrowed it. In a composition like a film still, Sherman is dressed up like an actress in the picture, revealing the stereotyped image of the woman in the film, not the artist himself. Sherman in the picture expresses an image-feminized woman through bright blonde manicured hair, costumes or swimsuits or lingerie that reveal the body's curvature, dark makeup, high shoes, and colorful ornaments (Figure 1). Though not expressed, Sherman's makeup, props, and composition are sufficient to relate to women in popular culture at that time. These images were created based on the male's perspective, creating a passive, superficial and fragile feeling. (Figure 2) By concealing the image of the artist's self and revealing the passively produced feminine image of the time, the artist asked women socially. It captures moments of accepting norms and gender roles, revealing discontinuities and falsehoods of the self. However, since Sherman is an individual who has built up her identity under the influence of women learned by mass media, the directing of this image also paradoxically reveals Sherman's self. In the world of Cindy Sherman's work, an individual's identity is expressed as easily manipulated through the transformation of an external product by a makeup, which raises the question of the fixedness of the identity. In the process of participating in the work as a model by herself, the artist's body is absorbed into the virtual reality. At this point, the makeup that fits the persona becomes the “path” that goes into the work. Sherman's self is concealed as the Sherman's body is imaged through representational makeup.


In 1981, the nature of Sherman's work changed from the farewell of his lover, and the theme was the "ugly" character who was alienated from society, as opposed to Sherman's previous code of femininity in society. Expressing the body of drug addict, dead body, deformed person through his body, “I'm tired of pretending to be other human beings. Pretending to be a monster is much more fun now, and it's really exciting to be completely physically transformed. ” If Sherman had previously maintained a woman's body and raised a discourse on women and identity, the work produced during this period completely rejects Sherman's traces through special makeup. In Figure 3, Sherman's face with pig nose and blood lacquer appears as a fictional identity born out of the archetype of the image and born in the context of the work. FIG. 4 is a scene aired in the television drama Twin Peaks, showing the body of a young woman abandoned by the river. Sherman said, “The work I get as a result of my competence and effort is not about fictional film stills or portraits, but more about true life. I have highlighted very human and very ugly forms. Now I'm trying to overcome the human instincts that I want to hide. ” Bloody skin, wet hair, mud-thick body and clothes, and facial skin tissues that are swollen through the makeup, realistically depict the sensation of a cold body and produce a stimulating visual image. Extend the theme to the ruins of nature and social structure.


Cindy Sherman has attempted to borrow images in a way that recreates existing works. In the 'Portrait of History' series, which ran from late 1980 to 1990, Sherman duplicated the existing works of French and Italian art and expressed the significance of the traditional expression of art by making explicit changes in detail. Fig. 5 beautifully reproduces the decorative background decorations of classical portraits, colorful costumes and ornaments, while also emphasizing the artificial expressions of the female body, emphasizing artificially made fake breasts by covering their faces with masks. . In Fig. 6, Sherman is dressed as a male, and the figure of the belly, the red nose and the dark eyebrows are reminiscent of Piero, contrasted with the background and the props that are antiquely produced.


In addition, Syndicateman continued his attempts to hide his self by appearing in his work and to reject the dichotomous division between artist and work. Representing various personas through makeup, such as creating a prototype of an image like <Pierro> or reproducing social celebrities in <Social Portrait>, show the social issues that penetrate the inside of the individual through the appearance of the characters in the work. Raised political art activities.


2. Nicky Lee and Dress Up


Nikki Lee is a Korean contemporary artist who developed photography and performance art based in New York. Nikki's work, Projects, is a self-portrait photograph produced over four years from 1997 to 2001. It explores one's identity in the non-mainstream culture of modern society. <Projects>, which began as a school assignment, started from the artist's concern about identity. This can be seen as an extension of the discourse about individual freedom and existence following the democratization that took place in the 1990s. Feminist artists see the body as a metaphor of identity, dismantling the meaning of the body Revealed the nature of the body transforming into existence. In an interview with Arirang TV, Nikkiri talks about the idea of ​​a work.


“I think people understand this concept easily. Because everyone has a fantasy to buy someone else's life. And because this is a picture, it has a visually simple understanding. It is also interesting to see the artist changing in various ways. […] I wondered what kind of art to do. My inner thoughts should come from my story. I thought about my interests and confirmed my interest in 'identity'. I wanted to create a snapshot, documentary quality piece of art in terms of identity. ”


Nikki began the The Drag Queen Project in 1997, starting with The Punk Project, The Young Japanese (East Village) Project, and the Tourist Project. The Tourist Project, 1998, Lesbian, Hispanic, Yuppies, Swing Dancers, and 1999 Senior Citizens. ), <Trailer Park Residents of Ohio>, <Exotic Dancers> in 2000, <Skateboarders in San Fransisco>, <High School Girls in Korea (Korean) High School Girls), and in 2001, the Hip Hop Project, explored various races, cultures, classes, and gender identity.


Nickyri revealed to the group that he was working on a project and attempted to acquire the group's identity in a unique way of living together for a period of time. Nikkiri used to live with them for about a month, performing on a pole dance like the members until they got a picture of the Exotic Dancers project (Fig. 7). . The artist recalls that even though the group members were identified as artists, Nikkiri was perceived as a figure within the group as Nikkiri's life radius was assimilated with the group. Nikkiri recorded his life as a fairy tale with the group with a simple camera. The filming was also done in a documentary way where members of the group or passers-by press the shutter. The shooting date of the cameras played a role in emphasizing the daily and documentary aspects of Project.


She not only shares life with them, but also emulates their identity, which is revealed externally, through makeup, in the <Hispanic Project> shown in (Fig. 8) to actually gain weight and burn skin to express the physical characteristics of the group. Also made semi-permanent physical transformations. In order to express the group's coded image, he conceived a natural mise en scene by reflecting the group's taste in the temporary dressing such as appropriate clothes and styling, as well as the props when taking pictures. He also added authenticity to the change of identity by learning lifestyles such as skateboarding and pole dancing that are actually shared by members of the group.


Through the identity embodied through experience, Nikkiri expresses her identity as a fluid identity with variability that encompasses a variety of selves. In this process, the artist Nikki recreates himself as a product of the experience of the group that is erased. At this time, the artist's body becomes an art of 'rewriting' with social multiple bodies.


IV. Conclusion: Makeup Self


The makeup presupposes the connection between socially coded internal characteristics and external appearances and visually expresses the inner self through changes in external appearances. The appearance of the hair, the colors on the face, and the elements of the appearance, such as the material of the clothes, suggest the value of the person, the history of life, the environment and the times surrounding the individual. Taking the personality of the makeup in the modern society to the extreme, I looked at the self-portraits of two female contemporary artists who expressed their identity through the advancement of individual expression. The two artists commonly share the identity they have learned in their lives and communicate their distinctive ego to the audience.


Synthetic and Nikkiri, however, differ in their approach to identity. While Cindy Sherman deliberately rejected the artist's self and reproduced the image-formed prototype, Nikki Lee showed a direction to actively explore the artist's self and identity. In addition, if Syndicatedman used a single subject in a studio for directing photography, Nikkiri was on the streets, experiencing the environment, and seeping into groups and cultural groups. Unlike the makeup, Sherman focuses on representations reminiscent of popular culture, but Nikki focuses on embodying lifestyles through direct experience, highlighting the relationship between individuals and groups.


The photographic self-portrait deliberately denies the artist's identity that the self-portrait is traditionally exposed to and asks questions about the context surrounding him. The syndicated man who made his body itself paradoxically by putting on himself and consciously erased himself, and Nikki who visually expresses the cultural codes inherent in the practical experience, have the subject of the artist's body in common. The artist, covered with a second identity, enters into the work and becomes the subject of the story and the subject of the work, and comes out of the work and contemplates his body transforming like a chameleon.



주제어(Key words) 신디 셔먼(Cindy Sherman), 니키 리(Nikki Lee), 분장(Make-up), 신체(Body), 자화상(Self-portrait), 사진(Photography), 현대미술(Contemporary Art), 페미니즘(Feminism)


참고문헌

강수미. 「예술가 신체의 물질/비물질성」. 『서양미술사학회논문집』. 34 (2011): 231-256.

김경숙. 「신체미술에 나타난 분장(Make-up) 연구」. 석사학위논문. 한남대학교, 2004.

김희조. 「자화상의 표현 양상 연구」. 석사학위논문. 홍익대학교, 2008.

오진경. 「한국 여성주의 미술의 몸의 정치학」. 『미술사논단』. 20 (2005): 81-111.

유우정. 「분장(Make-up)이 현대미술에 미친 영향」. 석사학위논문, 호남대학교, 2011.

이상희. 「총체예술로서의 분장 연구」. 석사학위논문. 숙명여자대학교, 2014.

46 에서 발췌한 김남희, 『Base Make up』 (도서출판 예림, 2006), 169-170.

이상희. 「총체예술로서의 분장 연구」. 석사학위논문. 숙명여자대학교, 2014.

이은주. 「대안적 자화상 연구」. 석사학위논문. 홍익대학교, 2013.

이지은. 「정체성의 장소: 니키 리의 <프로젝트> 시리즈에 대한 재고(再考)」. 『미술사와 시각문화』. 18 (2016): 92-119.

이호영. 「신디셔먼(Cindy Sherman)의 이미지에 나타난 시뮬랴시옹 분석-신체와 폭력을 중심으로」. 『만화애니메이션 연구』. (2010): 121-139

장순강. 「포스트모던 사진 자화상」. 『미술이론과 현장』. 15 (2013): 51-79.

전수경, 박윤미. 「신디셔먼의 셀프 포트레이트 작품에 나타난 무의식에 관한 심리학적 고찰」. 『한국과학예술포럼』. 8 (2011): 149-150

150에서 발췌한 홍순태, 『현대사진의 전개와 비평』 (신구, 1994), 245.

150에서 발췌한 이토 도시하루, 양수영 역, 『최후의 사진가들』 (타임스페이스, 1997), 125.

정승진. 「현대미술에서의 자화상과 이미지 차용 연구」. 석사학위논문. 홍익대학교, 2008.

16에서 발췌한 진중권, 『현대미학의 강의』 (아트 북스, 2003), 105

Stiles, Kristine Stiles, Selz, Peter. Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art . California: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1996.

791.에서 발췌한 Cindy Sherman, untitled statement, Documenta 7, I (Kassel: Documenta, 1982), 411.

ARIRANG TV, "INNERview Ep65 Who Am I? The artist drawing attention in NY - Nikki S. Lee", 12 September 2013, https://youtu.be/YMychWgKedA


국문초록

분장은 인간의 생존과 본능의 욕구를 충족시키는 것으로 시작해, 문명의 발전, 예능의 발전, 르네상스 시대, 사진의 등장과 같은 인류사의 커다란 사건들을 계기로 변모해왔다. 현대 사회에서는 분장은 개성 표현으로서의 역할을 수행하고 있는데, 예술에서의 분장은 실제와 분리된 허구의 정체성을 시각적으로 소통한다. 정체성을 소통하는 과정에서 인물의 내면성은 외형으로 발현되고, 외형은 내면성을 암시한다. 현대 미술에서의 자화상은 작가 자신이 주제가 되는 것이 아닌, 작가를 통해서 표현된 외적의 인물이나 사건, 개념 등이 조명을 받는다. 사진을 매체로 채택하는 현대 미술가는 재현적으로 표현되는 사진의 특성을 인지하며, 스스로를 지우기 위해 분장을 기술적으로 사용한다. 대중 문화에서 정형화된 여성의 모습부터 동화 속의 그로테스크한 존재의 추함부터 명화에 내재된 성의 표현까지, 신디셔먼은 분장을 통해 표현하고자 하는 주체로 변화한다. 연출된 모습은 사진으로 기록되어 작품 속에서 허구의 정체성으로서 메시지를 소통한다. 니키리는 미국 사회 속의 비주류 문화 속에 일정 기간 들어가 생활하고 그들의 모습을 내재화하며 분장을 도구 삼아 체화된 정체성을 표현한다. 본 연구는 이 두 여류 현대작가들이 사진 자화상을 제작하는데 있어 개입한 분장의 역할과 의의를 살펴보고자 한다.


Abstract

The Role of Make-up in Self-Portrait Photography of Female Contemporary Artists: Focusing on Cindy Sherman and Nikki Lee

Ryu, Soo Yon (Seoul National University)

Make-up began to meet human's survival and instinct needs, and evolved alongside some main anthropological events, such as the development of civilization, advancement of entertainment, the Renaissance, and the advent of photography. In the modern society, make-up serves as an expressive tool of individuality. In art, make-up visually communicates a fabricated identity, set apart from reality. In the process of communicating identity, an individual's internality is expressed by the appearance, and appearance alludes internality. In contemporary art, the artist does not become the subject of a self-portrait, but external characters, events, phenomena are highlighted through the artist. Contemporary artists who selected photography as their medium perceive the representative photographic characteristic, and use make-up technically to erase the artist self. Cindy Sherman utilizes make-up to change into the subject of expression, from patterned depiction of female in popular culture, to the ugliness of grotesque creatures in children’s story, to depiction of gender in noted paintings. The staged appearance is photographed to communicate messages from a fabricated identity within the work. Nikki Lee lives for a certain amount of time in the sub-culture societies of America, internalize their forms, and employ make-up to express the accumulated identity. This study aims to examine the role of make-up and its significance in the self-portrait photography production of these two female contemporary artists.


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